Life Sciences Questions and Answers 2021– Endocrine System

Life Sciences Questions and Answers 2021

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system that regulates distant target organs via feedback loops of hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system. The hypothalamus is the neural control node for all endocrine systems in vertebrates. The thyroid gland and the adrenal glands are the two main endocrine glands in humans. Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system and its disorders. Internal medicine includes the field of endocrinology.

1. Chemical messengers secreted by ductless glands are called___________
a) Lymph
b) Platelets
c) Plasma
d) Hormones

Explanation: Hormones are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands, which are ductless glands. The endocrine system is in charge of these glands.

2. Endocrine glands secret products into the ducts and transfer it into body cavities.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Ductless glands are endocrine glands that do not have a duct. Their products are secreted directly into the bloodstreams and circulated across the body.

3. Which of the following is NOT an endocrine gland?
a) Hypothalamus
b) Pituitary
c) Parathyroid
d) Pancreas

Explanation: Except for the hypothalamus, they are all endocrine glands. The hypothalamus and thymus are not known as endocrine glands, but they are part of the endocrine system since they are involved in hormone secretion.

4. Which of these statements is INCORRECT regarding the function of hormones?
a) Reproduction and sexual differentiation
b) Maintenance of internal environment
c) Maintain body temperature
d) Development and growth

Explanation: Hormones are produced by specialised cells in the endocrine glands and act on target cells that are far away. A single hormone can perform multiple functions, and multiple hormones can perform a single function in certain cases.

5. Mark the one, which is NOT the precursor of the hormone?
a) Amino acids
b) Cholesterol
c) Phospholipids
d) Proteins

Explanation: Hormones are classified chemically into two groups: lipid-soluble and water-soluble hormones.

6. What is the precursor of steroid hormone?
a) Protein
b) Cholesterol
c) Carbohydrate
d) Lipid

Explanation: Cholesterol is a precursor of the hormone steroid hormone. DHEA is a steroid hormone that is generated naturally from cholesterol.

7. Which of the is a fat soluble hormone?
a) Amine hormone
b) Peptide hormone
c) Thyroid hormone
d) Protein hormone

Explanation: Thyroid hormones are lipid soluble, while amine, peptide, and protein hormones, which range in size from 3 to over 200 amino acids, are water soluble.

8. Name the hormone which is synthesized from histidine amino acid?
a) Histamine
b) Epinephrine
c) Norepinephrine
d) Dopamine

Explanation: The amine hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are produced by modifying the amino acid tyrosine.

9. Which of the following is protein hormone?
a) Oxytocin
b) Insulin
c) TSH
d) Antidiuretic hormone

Explanation: Protein hormones include insulin and human growth hormones, while peptide hormones include oxytocin and antidiuretic hormones. TSH, or thyroid-stimulating hormone, is a glycoprotein hormone since it has carbohydrate attached to the protein.

10. Name the gland, which releases Neurohormone.
a) Hypothalamus
b) Pituitary
c) Thyroid
d) Pancreas
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Neurohormones are hormones that alter their function depending on their needs, such as releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones.

11. Name the hormone which takes part in the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary.
a) Growth hormone
b) GnRH
c) Somatostatin
d) TRH

Explanation: GnRH is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone that controls the development of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (LH).

12. Which of the following is the Growth hormone inhibiting hormone?
a) FSH
b) TRH
c) GHRH
d) Somatostatin

Explanation: Somatostatin is a growth inhibiting hormone that acts against growth hormone (GHRH). It is made up of two 14 and 28 amino acid peptides that are produced by neurosecretory nerves.

13. Mark the one, which is not inhibited by the effect of somatostatin.
a) GH
b) TSH
c) Glucagon
d) Dopamine

Explanation: Dopamine is a prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH) that prevents prolactin from being released from the anterior pituitary. It also has a neurotransmitter feature.

14. Name the hormone, which is released by the posterior pituitary.
a) Oxytocin
b) TSH
c) ICSH
d) Prolactin

Explanation: The posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin and vasopressin. Although the posterior pituitary does not produce hormones, it can store and release these two.

 

The back portion of the pituitary, also known as the master gland, is a tiny gland in the brain. The hormones oxytocin, which increases uterine contractions, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which increases water reabsorption by the kidney tubules, are both secreted by the posterior pituitary.

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